The Green Swamp System ranks possibly second only to the Florida Everglades in terms of hydrologic and environmental significance to the state. Overlying an important zone of groundwater recharge for peninsular Florida and the highest elevation potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, the Green Swamp ecosystem is important to the preservation of clean potable groundwater supplies. As noted above, the Swamp also includes the headwaters of various rivers including the Hillsborough, Withlacoochee, Little Withlacoochee, Oklawaha and Peace.
In the upper reaches of the Green Swamp River Systems, the floodplain forests and swamps promote natural detention of flood waters and provide habitat for many wildlife species. In addition to the rivers and their associated floodplains, habitats within the Green Swamp River Systems include a mosaic of cypress and hardwood forests, pine flatwood, prairies and sandhills.